Capital of Vietnam Vietnam

Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city. 

Area: 3.324,92 sq. km

Population: 6,232,900 habitants (as of August 2008)

Administrative divisions:

+ Ten urban districts: Hoàn Kiếm, Ba Đình, Đống Đa, Hai Bà Trưng, Tây Hồ, Thanh Xuân, Cầu Giấy, Long Biên, Hoàng Mai and Hà Đông.

- one town: Sơn Tây

- 18 rural districts: Đông Anh, Sóc Sơn, Thanh Trì, Từ Liêm, Gia Lâm, Ba Vì, Chương Mỹ, Đan Phượng, Hoài Đức, Mỹ Đức, Phú Xuyên, Phú Thọ, Quốc Oai, Thạch Thất, Thanh Oai, Thường Tín, Ứng Hòa and Mê Linh.

Ethnic groups

 Việt (Kinh), Hoa, Mường, Tày, Dao...


Hà Nội is located in the Red River Delta, in the center of North Việt Nam. It is encompassed by Thái Nguyên, Vĩnh Phúc Provinces to the north, Hòa Bình and Hà Nam to the south, Bắc Giang, Bắc Ninh and Hưng Yên Provinces to the east, Hòa Bình and Phú Thọ to the west.

Hà Nội means "the hinterland between the rivers" (Hà: river, Nội: interior). Hà Nội's territory is washed by the Red River (the portion of the Red River embracing Hà Nội is approximately 40km long) and its tributaries, but there are some other rivers flowing through the capital, including Đuống, Cầu, Cà Lồ, Đáy, Nhuệ, Tích, Tô Lịch and Kim Ngưu.


Hà Nội is situated in a tropical monsoon zone with two main seasons. During the dry season, which lasts from October to April, it is cold and there is very little rainfall, except from January to March, when the weather is still cold but there is some light rain. The wet season, from May to September, is hot with heavy rains and storms.


Hà Nội is a sacred land of Việt Nam. In the 3rd century BC, Cổ Loa (actually belonging to Đông Anh District) was chosen as the capital of the Âu Lạc Nation of Thục An Dương Vương (the King Thục).

Hà Nội later became the core of the resistance movements against the Northern invasions.

Located in the middle of the Red River Delta, the town has gradually expanded to become a very populous and rich residential center. At different periods, Hà Nội had been selected as the capital city of Việt Nam under the Northern domination. In the autumn of Canh Tuất lunar years (1010), Lý Thái Tổ, the founder of the Lý Dynasty (1010-1225), decided to transfer the capital from Hoa Lư to Đại La, and so he re-capitalized it Thăng Long (Soaring Dragon). The year 1010 then became a historical date for Hà Nội and for the whole country in general. For about a thousand years, the capital was called Thăng Long, then changing to Đông Đô, Đông Kinh, and finally to Hà Nội, in 1831. This sacred piece of land thereafter continued to be the theater of many fateful events.


Throughout the thousand years of its eventful history, marked by destruction, wars and natural calamities, Hà Nội still preserves many ancient architectural works including the Old Quarter and over 600 pagodas and temples. Famous sites include the One Pillar Pagoda (built in 1049), the Temple of Literature (built in 1070), Hà Nội Citadel, Hà Nội Opera House, President Hồ Chí Minh's Mausoleum, and so on.

Hà Nội also characteristically contains 18 beautiful lakes such as Hoàn Kiếm Lake, West Lake, and Trúc Bạch Lake, which are the lungs of the city, with their surrounding gardens and trees providing a vital source of energy.

Many traditional handicrafts are also practiced in Hà Nội including bronze molding, silver carving, lacquer, and embroidery. Hà Nội has many famous traditional professional handicraft villages such as Bát Tràng pottery village, Ngũ Xã bronze casting village, Yên Thái glossy silk village.


+ By road: Hà Nội is 93km from Ninh Bình, 102km from Hải Phòng, 153km from Thanh Hóa, 151km from Hạ Long, 474km from Điện Biên Phủ, 658km from Huế, 763km from Đà Nẵng, and 1,710km from Hồ Chí Minh City.

+ By air: Nội Bài International Airport, over 35km from the city center, is one of the biggest airports of the country with various international and domestic routes. There are domestic flights from Hà Nội to Đà Nẵng, Điện Biên, Hồ Chí Minh, Huế, Nha Trang and international flights to many countries in over the world.

+ By train: Hà Nội Railway Station is Việt Nam's main railway station. It is the starting point of five railway lines leading to almost every province in Việt Nam./.